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|History of Football - 19th Century
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world.
How did it start and why is it so popular ?
Over many centuries, different European cultures created their own idea
of playing ball games. From the beginning, the ancient Egyptians
used ball games as entertainment, later the Greeks used it as training
technique. The popular Greek ball game "Harpaston", which was an
indoor handball game, was taken over by the Romans. They called this
game "Harpastum" and their army used it also as training technique.
The Roman soldiers played this rugby style game outside on grass or dirt,
named "pila pulverulenta" (dust-ball). The Romans occupied the regions
of France and Britain, they also had a strong influence in culture, architecture
and arts, entertainment and many other things. They built settlements
for important, high-ranking or rich people, some of them had a play ground
for practicing games. The Roman game "Harpastum" became more civilized
and wasn't only a training technique anymore. Meanwhile, in ancient
Britain, the original inhabitants organized an attack on their occupiers.
The Picts and Scots came from the north of Britain while the Celts invaded
from Ireland and West Britain. The Romans were defeated and pulled
back to Rome, the Celts crossed the Channel and occupied a part of France
called Brittany. To celebrate their victory, the Celts in France
created a game "seoult", also known as "choule" or "soule". The idea
came from the Roman game "Harpastum", but now the field was much larger
and the duration of this game was unlimited. Due to the violent nature
of the game, King Philip V of France banned it in 1319. King Charles
V of France again prohibited the game in 1388, although this really did
not stop the game being played in France at all. In 19th century,
all games were definitely prohibited.
|In 1801, the Author Joseph Strutt published "The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England" which gave an insight into football in the 1700’s. He described two teams of equal numbers who lined up between two goals that were 80-100 yards apart. The goals themselves were two sticks in the ground that were approximately a yard apart. Strutt also added : "The ball, which is commonly made up of a blown bladder and cased in leather, is delivered in the midst of the ground, and the object of each party is to drive it through the goal of their antagonists, which being achieved, the game is won". So it seemed as if a set of rules surrounding the game was beginning to develop.
Early 19th century, football was very popular among the factory workers, citizens, schoolboys and many others. Although, having survived various attempts to ban the game, football remained a fairly lawless and unruly game until the mid-1840's. The real starting point of modern football came with the expansion of the public schools. Most important schools were located in Charterhouse, Eton, Harrow, Shrewsbury, Westminster and Winchester. Basically, the ball game was played without rules and each school used different playing techniques. The purpose was to kick the ball far away with the foot, and the opposite team had to kick it back, some schools allowed to use hands to stop the ball in air. On both sides, a goal was made with sticks but there was no goal keeper because everyone wanted to run after the ball. Those games were based on order, discipline and team spirit, even it was a though game, the students were gentlemen in tradition of their school. After many complaints and injuries, each school created his own law, most of them prohibited hard contacts, and they gave the name "dribbling game".
Until 1800, there is little mention of football at Rugby school (Warwickshire). By the 1820's however the game was well established. The students created their own rules : no one was allowed to run with the ball towards the opposite goal and the defending team was only allowed to advance to the person who caught the ball. In 1823, during a "dribbling game" in public school of Rugby, the 16 year old schoolboy William Webb Ellis caught the ball and instead of standing still, he ran with the ball in his hands to the opposite side of the field where he dropped it behind the line. Everyone was amazed about this action but they invalidated the goal, this was only "a nice try".
|William Webb Ellis
Born : 24 November 1806, Salford, Lancashire
Died : 24 January 1872, Menton, Provence, France
Education : Rugby School 1816-1825 ; Oxford University 1825-1828 (he won his cricket blue in 1827)
Later became chaplain of St George's Chapel in Albermale
William, or Bill to his mates, was a pupil at posh Rugby School in Warwickshire during the early 19th century.
During a football training session in 1823 the 16 year old schoolboy caught the round ball and he ran with it in his hands.
In fact, some historians reckon William Webb Ellis might have been demonstrating the ancient Irish game of "caid", which was similar to rugby.
His father had been stationed in Ireland with the army and he could have seen it being played there.
Nowadays, the name of the Rugby Union World Cup trophy is "The Webb Ellis Cup".
|The "William Webb Ellis" action became legendary and this resulted into the creation of a new game called "rugby", named after the school. In 1841, at the beginning of the new academic year, "rugby" was legalized. In 1845, the Rugby School wrote the first rules which were completed and/or corrected every year. This means, the "rugby" rules are officially older then the "soccer" rules. The word "soccer" didn't even exist, not yet, everyone was talking about "dribbling game".
The desire of teams, particularly public schools, to play against each
other made the lack of a generally set of rules an issue, which needed
resolving. However, each school had different ideas on the size of
the field, the size and shape of the ball, the handling techniques and
whether or not hacking (= a sharp kick to the shins) was permitted.
In 1846, one year after the first "rugby" rules, students of the Cambridge
University were the first who made an attempt at unifying the "dribbling
game" rules. A second attempt was in October 1848, two players of
the Cambridge University, Mr. H. de Winton and Mr. J.C. Thring, called
a meeting with representatives from the major public schools.
|Those rules were spread to the outside world, trying to convince clubs to move away from their provincial outlook and to adopt a common code. An original copy hasn't survived, but an "1856" version entitled "Laws of the University Foot Ball Club", was discovered over a hundred years later in the Library of Shrewsbury School, and it may be taken as practicably a copy of the original "1848" version.
On 24 October 1857, "Sheffield Football Club" came into existence and became the world's oldest football club, as distinct from a university or a public school team. The founders were Nathanial Creswick, a solicitor and chairman of a sliver-plate company, and William Prest, a wine merchant. The team was originally based on various grounds in Sheffield, including "Bramall Lane", later home of "Sheffield Wednesday FC" and now "Sheffield United FC".
|Football in varying simple and basic forms had existed in England even in the eighteenth century with records showing games between representative teams from Norton and Sheffield in 1793. Members of the fencing club and gymnasium in Clarkehouse Road were also playing football from about 1852. However, in the winter of 1854, the Sheffield Cricket Club and other interested parties held a meeting in the Adelphi Hotel, in Arundel Street, to hear proposals regarding a new ground. The site was a plot of land by Bramall Lane. The club was granted a 99 year lease. The first cricket match at the new ground took place on 30th April 1855, a game in which William Prest took part. In May 1857, Prest and his close friend Nathanial Creswick, were discussing football, and more specifically the need for organised sport during the winter. With this in mind Sheffield Football Club was born. By October 24th 1857, the officers of the new football club had been appointed. Up until this point, football had been played under laws used by the various public schools and Cambridge University. Following a study of these laws, the Sheffield Football Club Committee laid down its own code in a succinct set of laws whilst setting up temporary headquarters in a potting shed and greenhouse owned by Asline Ward and situated at Park House at the bottom of East Bank Road.
|"The Sheffield" rules were :
1) The kick from the middle must be a place kick.
2) "Kick Out" must not be more than 25 yards out of goal.
3) "Fair Catch" is a catch from any player provided the ball has not touched the ground or has not been thrown from touch and is entitled to a free-kick.
4) Charging is fair in case of a place kick (with the exception of a kick off as soon as a player offers to kick) but he may always draw back unless he has actually touched the ball with his foot.
5) Pushing with the hands is allowed but no hacking or tripping up is fair under any circumstances whatever.
6) No player may be held or pulled over.
7) It is not lawful to take the ball off the ground (except in touch) for any purpose whatever.
8) The ball may be pushed or hit with the hand, but holding the ball except in the case of a free kick is altogether disallowed.
9) A goal must be kicked but not from touch nor by a free kick from a catch.
10) A ball in touch is dead, consequently the side that touches it down must bring it to the edge of the touch and throw it straight out from touch.
11) Each player must provide himself with a red and dark blue flannel cap, one color to be worn by each side.
|Club members organized teams such as the first half of the alphabet (A-M) against the rest, professional occupations versus the others, married men versus unmarried, but soon other Sheffield teams had come into being, beginning with "Hallam Football Club" in 1860. By 1862 there were fifteen organised teams in and around Sheffield.
The Master at Uppingham School, the Rev. J.C. Thring (who was at Cambridge
when the 1846 University Club was formed), issued a more specific set of
rules entitled "The Simplest Game".
|After the publication of Thring's rules and the formation of a number of clubs, the need for concerted action became imperative. Early 1863, six public schools held a meeting, those participants were : Eton, Harrow, Marlborough, Rugby, Shrewsbury and Westminster. This was a last attempt to unify their rules but also this time it failed.
On 26 October 1863, captains and representatives of several London teams
and suburban clubs met at the Freemason's Tavern in Lincoln's Inn Fields,
Great Queen Street in London, to codify the rules "for the regulation of
the game of football".
|Ebenezer Cobb Morley
1863-1866 : Secretary of the Football Association
1867-1874 : President of the Football Association
|The first "Football Association" rules were :
1) The maximum length of the ground shall be 200 yards, the maximum breadth shall be 100 yards, the length and breadth shall be marked off with flags, and the goal shall be defined by two upright posts, eight yards apart, without any tape or bar across them.
2) A toss for goals shall take place, and the game shall be commenced by a place kick from the centre of the ground by the side losing the toss for goals, the other side shall not approach within 10 yards of the ball until it is kicked off.
3) After a goal is won, the losing side shall be entitled to kick off, and the two sides shall change goals after each goal is won.
4) A goal shall be won when the ball passes between the goal-posts or over the space between the goal-posts (at whatever height), not being thrown, knocked on, or carried.
5) When the ball is in touch, the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground in a direction at right angles with the boundary line, and the ball shall not be in play until it has touched the ground.
6) When a player has kicked the ball, any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal line is out of play and may not touch the ball himself, nor in any way whatever prevent any other player from doing so, until he is in play, but no player is out of play when the ball is kicked off from behind the goal line.
7) In case the ball goes behind the goal line, if a player on the side to whom the goal belongs first touches the ball, one of his side shall he entitled to a free kick from the goal line at the point opposite the place where the ball shall be touched. If a player of the opposite side first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick at the goal only from a point 15 yards outside the goal line, opposite the place where the ball is touched, the opposing side standing within their goal line until he has had his kick.
8) If a player makes a fair catch, he shall be entitled to a free kick, providing he claims it by making a mark with his heel at once, and in order to take such a kick he may go back as far as he pleases, and no player on the opposite side shall advance beyond his mark until he has kicked.
9) No player shall run with the ball.
10) Neither tripping nor hacking shall be allowed, and no player shall use his hands to hold or push his adversary.
11) A player shall not be allowed to throw the ball or pass it to another with his hands.
12) No player shall be allowed to take the ball from the ground with his hands under any pretext whatever while it is in play.
13) No player shall be allowed to wear projecting nails, iron plates, or gutta percha on the soles or heels of his boots.
|The drawing up and publication of the rules was the initial priority of "The F.A." and these rules were published in November 1863. Basically, the game was a mixed of rules inspired by "dribbling game" and "rugby". After the publications, there was still considerable bad feelings about the rules and many disagreements between the "Associationists" and the "Rugby Unionists", this led to a split with the latter leaving "The F.A." to develop their own game and "The Rugby Football Union", created by the teams from Blackheath.
|The first football was a pig bladder, inflated with human lung power, and knotted at the end like a balloon. Boot and shoemakers then made a leather case for the ball, reflecting the shape of the bladder. This was "plum shaped", rounder than today's rugby ball, but certainly not spherical. In 1862 came the invention of an India rubber bladder and a pump with which to inflate it. From that moment, "The F.A." choose a round ball while "The R.F.U." preferred an egg-figured or oval ball.
Captain Randulph Dacre and his family, who sailed up the Waitemata Harbour
about 1827, were probably the first white people to set foot where Auckland
stands today. His son Charles Craven Dacre was born in Sydney in
1848 and came to Auckland in 1859 by the baroque City of Melbourne. Captain
Dacre had his son do primary education at Lysnars and then sent him off
to England where he entered the Royal Agricultural College. Soon,
Charles made friends, one of them was C. Nepean of Charterhouse who was
the best "dribbler" of England.
|The first game played under these rules was the county of Middlesex
versus the counties of Kent and Surrey. Twenty-four of the most prominent
football "dribblers" were chosen to play this game, Charles represented
The following is the account of the first game :
*The match between these two parties, originated by the officers of the Football Association, on which the attention of all interested in football matters has been so long centred, took place on Saturday last, the 2nd inst., at Battersea Park, in the presence of a goodly array of spectators, attracted, doubtless, by the formidable combination of players selected to represent the rival teams.
The fixture had originally been made for Beaufort House, but, in consequence of some unaccountable difference between Lord Ranelagh and the Amateur Athletic Club, who were the reported lessees of the ground, the two captains were compelled, at the last moment, to resort to Battersea Park, which was in execrable order, and totally unfit for football purposes, the grass, which was unusually thick and long, being far too heavy to admit of either turning or dribbling. In spite, however, of the disadvantages under which they labored, the players were all assembled on the ground at 3.30, and the preliminaries having been settled, the ball was kicked off by the captain of the Middlesex team, who, by losing the toss were compelled to play up the hill from the lower goal. With the first kick off the game was commenced in right earnest, each side striving hard to secure the first advantage, but the rival teams were too evenly matched to allow any decisive result, and for some time the ball was kept almost entirely in the middle of the ground. In spite of several gallant rushes made for Surrey and Kent by P. Rhodes and P.M. Thornton, the Middlesex men gradually drove their opponents back, and opened a series of attacks on their adversaries’ goal, which, under the care of R.W. Willis and J. Cockerell, bravely resisted the desperate attempts made by the men of Middlesex. Still, the game continued without any apparent advantage to either team, and the Middlesex men had already commenced to push forward their back players, when a well-executed run down by P. Rhodes and P.M. Thornton, the former of whom succeeded in eluding the opposing goalkeepers, drove the ball within an inch of the Middlesex goal-post. The angle, however, at which he had to kick prevented any hope of success, and the fight was again resumed until time was called at five o’clock, at which hour, neither side having achieved any score, the match terminated in a draw. As an experimental county trial, this opening match proved so successful as to satisfy the most ardent desires of the promoters, and we trust that it may serve as a forerunner of many equally exciting struggles between the other counties. Such contests will go far to extend the game, and will doubtless cause many valuable additions to the rapidly increasing army of football clubs. Football for some time has been confined within too narrow bounds, and it only wants a fair field to expand and ripen into a national game. This match proved most exciting throughout, as neither side could lay claim to any superiority, the talent being most equally divided. The Middlesex men were perhaps more energetic in their forward play, though their goal-keeping was inferior to that exhibited by their adversaries. For Surrey and Kent, P. Rhodes, P.M. Thornton, J. Cockerell, and R.W. Willis played in their accustomed style ; while for Middlesex G.G. Kennedy, J.B. Martin, C.E.B. Nepean, and A. Baker did most efficient service.*
The following is a list of the players:
- Middlesex :
C.W. Alcock (Wanderers), A. Baker (N.N.’s), W.J. Dixon (Old Westminster), G.G. Kennedy (Harrow Chequers), G.H. Lee (Westminster School), J.B. Marlin (Crusaders), C.E.B. Nepean (Charterhouse School), J.C. Smith (Westminster School), E.W. Wylde (Old Westminster), H. Emanuel (N.N.’s). and R.C. Thornton (Wanderers).
- Surrey and Kent :
J. Cockerell (Crystal Palace), W.J.C. Cutbill (Crystal Palace), C.C. Dacre (Clapham Grammar School), R.G. Graham (Barnes Club), J. Kirkpatrick (Civil Service), W. B. Money (Harrow Chequers), (J.K. Barnes), P. Rhodes (Wanderers), F.B. Soden (T.C.C.), P.M. Thornton (Wanderers), C.J. Thornton (Eton College), (R.M. Thornton), and R.W. Willis (Barnes Club).
|Charles Craven Dacre wasn't only excelled in football but he was also
a great cricketer and by 1868, he was the captain of the Royal Agricultural
College. He was also selected captain of the twenty-two South of
England cricketers to play against an All England team. In one club
match he performed an amazing feat of clean bowling the whole side 10 wickets
for six runs, out of the total of 17 and then scored 97 runs not out (no
boundaries). He twice won the college competition of throwing the
cricket ball, his record was 105 yards 1 foot. Before he left England
to return to Auckland he was at one time secretary of the Football Association
and also of the Surrey County. When he arrived, Charles never lost
his interest in sport. In July 1870, although the code of Association
football wasn't introduced yet, he joined with Frank Whittaker and several
others to form an Auckland Football Club. The first thing required
was of course a ball, which was eventually procured from Melbourne.
The rules to be adopted were those of Westminster, as Frank Whittaker was
an old Westminster boy and an able exponent of the dribbling game.
We can only guess that the gentlemen present were somewhat of different
minds as to which rules should apply, each having a fondness for those
of which they had played under in England. The Auckland team was
soon coached into something like form and the first game was played by
the club against a team from the "H.M.S Rosario" at the old Albert Barracks
(now Albert Park). The final rules were a sort of "no picking up
the ball, no offside and no holding, but shoving was permitted".
The match awoke interest in football in Auckland and for some time continued
with rules, as far as can be gathered, which were a cross between Association
and Rugby. About 1872 a further game, this time between the Volunteers
and Auckland was played, in which the account shows clearly that the goals
were being scored by "sending the ball between their opponent’s goal posts".
The thin line of which games were being played, Rugby or Football, may
remain unsolved, but according to information gained by Ernest J. Byre
in the compiling of the "History of the North Shore Rugby Football Club",
it was in I873 that the Auckland Club made a change to Rugby, with the
first 15 a side interclub rugby match played in Auckland taking place in
the Albert Barracks between the Auckland Club and the newly formed North
Shore Rugby Club that same year.
By 1875, Charles Dacre was chosen as a member of the first team of Aucklanders to tour the colony, but was unable to travel and his brother Life (Deliverance) took his place, this team achieved notoriety by losing every match played. However, in 1876, Charles did play in the first interprovincial rugby game won by Auckland. This against Canterbury, and it was Charles Dacre that scored the first points ever by an Auckland player when he was awarded a try early in the match. But once again the game of rugby was to prove too rough, for in 1878 Charlie was to have his leg broken in a contest at Cheltenham. The crack of the breaking leg sounded in the clear winter atmosphere like a pistol shot, a stretcher was improvised from a door wrenched from a barn and helped to convey the injured man home. After this affair, Charles Dacre abandoned "Rugby".
Since the foundation of the Football Association (1863), new teams were created every year. England's oldest professional club, Notts County FC (from Nottingham), was already founded in 1862. The oldest Scottish club, Queen's Park (from Glasgow), was founded in 1867. The F.A.'s early influence on the game was not dramatic or widespread and was mainly confined to organizing friendly games. Students of Universities in and around the City of London made the football game popular in whole Britain. Those days, the game was very attractive and the rules were easy. The teams usually played without tactical plan, the only important thing was the final score. Basically, a team consisted of a goalkeeper, who wasn't allowed to use his hands, one defender, one center and eight forward (1-1-8 system). Since 1866, the F.A. adopted the previous Cambridge off-side ruling of three players and this remained until 1925. The off-side rule said : "Any player between an opponents' goal and goalkeeper (unless he has followed the ball there) is off-side and out of play. The goalkeeper is that player on the defending side, who, for the time being, is nearest to his goal". This means, the player who received the ball, was not standing or running off-side when at least three opponents were in front of him, including the goalkeeper. Since 1871, the goalkeeper may take the ball with his hands but this didn't change the tactictal plans.
|Archives mention a game played on 31 March 1866 between a team from London (compilation of Football Association teams) and a team from Sheffield (who hadn't off-side rules). The London team won 4-2. The first player to be caught off-side was Charles William Alcock of the London team. He was previously selected in 1863 in the friendly game between Middlesex and Kent/Surrey, see also above for details.
|Charles William Alcock
Born : 2 December 1842, Bishop Wearmouth, Sunderland
Died : 26 February 1907, at home in Arundel Road, Brighton , Sussex
Education : Harrow School
1862 : cricketer ; major team was "Gentlemen of the South"
1863 : player of the Wanderers
1869-1872 : player of Upton Park Football Club
1870-1895 : Secretary of the Football Association
1872-1907 : Secretary of the Surrey County Cricket Club
16 March 1872 : player of the Wanderers who won the first Challenge Cup finale
30 November 1872 : umpire during the first international match between England and Scotland
6 March 1875 : captain of England playing against Scotland at Kenninton Oval, London
1880 : organizer of the cricket match between England and Australia at The Oval, which was later recognized as "the first test"
1882-1907 : journalist and editor of cricket magazines
|The origins of the F.A. Cup date back to a competition held every year at Harrow School. The students were grouped in teams or "houses", and they ran a football competition named "the cock house cup", the winners were "the cock house". One of those players was Charles William Alcock. In 1863, Alcock was among those who got together to form the Football Association and it was he who created the idea of a F.A. members cup. On 20 July 1871, Charles William Alcock, Secretary of the Football Association, proposed that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association for which all clubs belonging to the F.A. should be invited to compete. From this moment, the football's first national tournament was born. The idea was approved and 15 member clubs answered the call for entrants : Barnes, Civil Service, Clapham Rovers, Crystal Palace, Donington School (from Lincolnshire), Hampstead Heathens, Harrow Chequers, Hitchin, Maidenhead, Marlow, Queen's Park (from Glasgow), Reigate Priory, Royal Engineers, Upton Park, Wanderers. So, we have 14 teams from England (13 teams were settled in London) and one team from Scotland, Queen's Park was also the first team who paid his registration. The competition was simply named "The Football Association Challenge Cup", there was no seeding to keep the best teams apart and both sides progressed to the next round when the result was drawn. Queen's Park of Glasgow was automatically placed to the semi finals because the cost of travelling to London, where games were played, was expensive. Donnington School withdrew from competition without playing any game. The first round, Harrow Chequers gave forfait against Wanderers while Royal Engineers had a walk over against Reigate Priory. In the second round, Wanderers won against Clapham Rovers (3-1), and Royal Engineers won against Hitchin (5-0). The quarter finals, there were only five teams instead of eight. Queen's Park went through with a bye, Royal Engineers beat Hampstead Heathens (2-0), Wanderers and Crystal Palace were qualified after arrangement. At least the semi finals looked correct with four teams but even then it wasn't straightforward. Queen's Park made the trip to London to play the Wanderers, the game ended with a draw. The F.A. ordered a replay but the Scottish team ran out of money and withdrew. The Royal Engineers went to the final after beating Crystal Palace (3-0), this team consisted of employees of the London tourist attraction and park.
|On 16 March 1872 at the Kennington Oval, the Royal Engineers were the
favorites to win the first Cup final ever. Two-thousand spectators
enjoyed this historical match, standing without flags, scarves or hats
declaring their club colors. The field had no markings, the goals
had no nets and the crossbar was a simple length of tape. When the
teams entered the field, there were no recognizable goalkeepers because
they wore the same jersey as their teammates. The way of playing
looked like school boys in a playground chasing the ball. Royal Engineers
set out to control the game early on but were hindered when Edmund Cresswell
fell and broke his collar bone with just ten minutes gone. With no substitutes
allowed the Royal Engineers were down to ten men although Cresswell did
return to the game after treatment. The Wanderers took advantage
of this injury, the only goal came from a gentleman described as A.H. Chequer,
in fact his real name was Morton Peto Betts. He got this nickname
because he was a member of Harrow Chequers when his team gave forfeit in
the first round against the Wanderers. After the final whistle there
were no scenes of agony and ecstasy, there was no presentation or lap of
honor. The players shook hands and left the field for a bath and
their tea. Three weeks after this day, the F.A. held a gala evening
in Pall Mall and declared "the Cup" a roaring success.
The following is a list of the players :
- Wanderers :
R. De C. Welsh, Charles W. Alcock, Morton P. Betts, Alexander G. Bonsor, Edward E. Bowen, W. Crake, T.C. Hooman, Edgar Lubbock, Albert C. Thompson, Robert W. Vidal, Charles Wollaston
- Royal Engineers :
Capt. William Merriman, Capt. Francis Marindin, Lieut. Addison, Lieut. Edmund Cresswell, Lieut. Mitchell, Lieut. Renny-Tailyour, Lieut. Rich, Lieut. Alfred Goodwyn, Lieut. Muirhead, Lieut. Cotter, Lieut. Bogle
|"The Challenge Cup" was played every year untill 1888, since then it changed name to "The F.A. Cup". The finalists were usually university teams (p.ex. Oxford University), public schools (p.ex. Old Etonians), military teams (p.ex. Royal Engineers) and gentlemen teams (p.ex. Wanderers).
Saturday 30 November 1872, again thanks to Charles William Alcock, the first international game between England and Scotland took place at the cricket ground Hamilton Crescent in Glasgow. There was a distinct clash of styles, England lined up playing a 1-1-8 formation, in which whoever had the ball would dribble at the opponents and kick it up field before he was tackled. One of the seven forwards, following behind, would then chase the ball. Scotland played with a 2-2-6 system, with three banks of forwards divided into pairs. Each pair of players, in defense, midfield and attack, knew who their partner was and their job was to pass to them when possible. This revolutionary tactic of "passing and running" was known as the combination game, and the English had never seen anything like it. Both styles reflected each team's different culture. The England side's individualistic nature was summed up by their kit : they wore white shirts (with the three lions), but different-coloured knickerbockers and socks, depending on what public school they attended. Scotland, whose team was made up of Queen's Park players, all wore blue shirts, white knickerbockers and blue-and-white hooped socks. Below you'll find details about this historical moment.
|Place : Hamilton Crescent (West of Scotland Cricket Ground), Glasgow
Time : kick-off 2h20 pm (delayed 20 minutes)
Weather : field slightly greasy from two/three days sustained rain, drizzle in the morning and sunny in the afternoon
Attendance : 4.000
Score : 0-0
- Referee = William Keay (Scotland)
- Umpires = Charles William Alcock (England) and H. Smith (Scotland)
The England team was selected by Charles Alcock, Secretary of the Football Association, and accepted by the entire Committee.
Alcock was also Wanderers forward and set himself to captain of "his" team but a serious injury he suffered two weeks earlier, ruled him out.
England halfback Frederick Patey Chappell changed his name to Frederick Brunning Maddison in 1873.
Barker and Maynard changed positions during the match.
The Players :
- Scotland :
Gardner Robert W. - Goalkeeper - Queen's Park FC (captain and team selector)
Ker William - Defender - Queen's Park FC
Taylor Joseph - Defender - Queen's Park FC
Thomson James J. - Midfield - Queen's Park FC
Smith James - Midfield - Queen's Park FC
Smith Robert - Forward - Queen's Park FC
Leckie Robert - Forward - Queen's Park FC
Rhind Alex - Forward - Queen's Park FC
MacKinnon William Muir - Forward - Queen's Park FC
Weir James Bregg "Jerry" - Forward - Queen's Park FC
Wotherspoon David - Forward - Queen's Park FC
Barker Robert - Goalkeeper/Forward - Hertfordshire Rangers
Greenhalgh Ernest H. - Defender - Notts County FC
Welch Reginald de C. - Midfield - Wanderers FC
Chappell Frederick P. - Oxford University
Maynard William J. - Forward/Goalkeeper - 1st Surrey Rifles
Brockbank John - Forward - Cambridge University
Clegg John C. - Forward - Wednesday FC
Smith Arnold K. - Forward - Oxford University
Ottaway Cuithbert J. - Forward - Oxford University (captain)
Chenery Charles J. - Forward - Crystal Palace FC
Morice Charles J. - Forward - Barnes FC
The oldest Scottish club was Edinburgh Academicals, formed in 1857. The first Scottish football team was Queen's Park from Glasgow, founded on 9 July 1867, their first competitive game against a team called Thistle was in August 1868. As clubs began to form in the wake of Queen's Park, games were initially arranged on a friendly basis. The spread of a national transport system throughout Britain meant an international meeting was unavoidable. Queen's Park visited England many times and became member of the Football Association. In 1871, the club also subscribed in the first edition of "The F.A. Challenge Cup". The year before, in 1870, the Secretary of the Football Association, Charles William Alcock, wrote to the "Glasgow Herald" to suggest an international meeting between the two neighbors. On 30 November 1872, on Saint Andrew's Day, the first official international game occurred when Queen's Park arranged a game at Hamilton Crescent cricket ground. The whole Scottish team were all players of Queen's Park and wore their club colours (blue shirt, white short and white/blue socks), even now Scotland has the same outfit. Queen's Park gave the West of Scotland cricket club £10 for the use of their field and promised to pay a further £10 if takings for the game were higher than £50. In the event 4000 people paid £103 to watch the scoreless draw. The success of the match ensured that the game would become a regular fixture and Scotland quickly established itself as the early pace-setter, winning eight and losing only two of the first twelve internationals with England. The first confrontation resulted in a more competitive approach of the Scottish clubs that normally played friendly games.
|On 13 March 1873, Queen's Park called a meeting in Dewar's Hotel, Glasgow, attended by representatives of the other Scottish leading teams, which were : Clydesdale, Dumbreck, Eastern, Granville, Rovers, Third Lanark Rifle Volunteer Reserves, Vale of Leven. This meeting not only founded the "Scottish Football Association" but also established "the Challenge Cup" competition, later renamed "the Scottish Cup". This competition started on 18 October 1873, Queen's Park entered it on 25 October 1873 as they opened their new ground "Hampden Park" which is now the Scottish national stadium.
|Queen's Park, however, still played in the English F.A. Cup reaching the final in 1883 and 1884, though they were beaten on both occasions by Blackburn Rovers. Other Scottish clubs that played in the English F.A. Cup were Cowlairs, Glasgow Rangers, Partick Thistle, Renton and Third Lanark. In 1887, the Scottish F.A. decided that clubs "belonging to this Association shall not be members of any other Association". By that time Queen's Park had already claimed "the Scottish Cup" six times, with only a three year interruption by Vale of Leven taking the trophy away from the Glasgow side. But by the end of the 1880's, Queen's Park's dominance of the Scottish game was nearing an end. Glasgow Rangers were formed in 1872 and Celtic Glasgow in 1888. In 1893, while Queen's Park claimed their last Scottish Cup success, Celtic won their first league title in the third year of the competition. The Scottish Football League was established in 1890, the Second Division in 1893.
After England (1863) and Scotland (1873), Wales has the third oldest football asscociation in the world. On February 1876, in Ruabon nearby Wrexham, a group of businessmen wanted to have a team to play against Scotland and they formed the "Football Association of Wales". One of those early pioneers, and first secretary, was solicitor Llewelyn Kenrick, member of Wales' oldest club side "Shropshire Wanderers". Kenrick was charged with the responsibility of publishing the need for players to be considered for team selection. The Welsh team was chosen and consisted of ten players from the North, one came from South Wales. On 4 March 1876, at Hamilton Crescent in Glasgow, the Scottish team had beaten England (3-0) for 16000 spectators. Three weeks later, on 25 March 1876, they won against the Welsh team (4-0) for 17000 spectators. Football remained a North Wales sport with clubs as Wrexham (founded in 1873), Oswestry and Chirk. In 1877, the Welsh Cup was introduced with the intention to test players for the next international games. Wrexham won the first edition, South Wales was more interested in rugby but this changed with the creation of their own football association in 1893. Workers of ports and coal mines came from Yorkshire, Lancashire or Scotland which resulted in the formation of the Welsh Football League in 1902. But, many teams joined the English Leagues in search of a higher standard of football.
Although football was being played in Ireland since the 1860's, it was mainly based in Ulster and it was not until the 1880's that the game spread to other areas of the country. On 24 October 1878, the Scottish team "Queen's Park" from Glasgow played an exhibition game against "Caledonians", the location was in Ballymafeigh at Ulster Cricket. Two years later, on 18 November 1880, an historic meeting took place at Queens Hotel in Belfast. "Cliftonville FC" had invited all teams settled in Belfast and district to speak about the rules of the Scottish Football Association and to form their own Irish Football Association. It's aims were to promote and develop the game throughout Ireland. The new Association elected its first President, Major Spencer Chichester, and agreed to organize an annual Challenge Cup. In the first final of season 1880/81, Moyola Park defeated Cliftonville (1-0). On 18 February 1882, the Irish F.A. played and lost their first international game against England (0-13) in Belfast at "Knock Ground", but the gate receipts amounted £9,19s which was a success. The first club outside Ulster was Dublin Association Football Club, founded in 1883. At the time, the Irish F.A. was based in Belfast and had it difficult to promote football throughout the country which led to the formation of the Leinster Football Association in 1892. However, there was always a feeling among clubs from outside Belfast area that the Irish Football Association favored Ulster, protestant, teams, especially when selecting players for international matches. Between 1916 and 1921, members of the Leister F.A. often threatened to break away from the Irish F.A., and early 1921, Bohemians, St. James Gate and Shelbourne withdrew from the Irish League. On 1 June 1921, the southern part decided at a meeting in Dublin's Molesworth Hall to leave the Irish F.A. and they formed the "Football Association of the Irish Free State" (FAIFS). Nowadays, we have the "Irish Football Association" (= Northern Ireland) and the "Football Association of Ireland" (= Republic of Ireland).
In 1880, "association football" was one of the most popular sports among students and hard working men. Each college or factory started with their own team, sometimes they also played friendly games. Cricket and law tennis were merely for the better classes, while rugby and soccer were for the common people. Those days, the membership of the Football Association was up to 128 clubs including 80 from the south of England, 41 from the north of England, 6 from Scotland and 1 from Australia (note : soccer was brought to Australia by John Walter Fletcher who made his home in Sydney, probably in 1877 he founded the Wanderers Club, in 1880 he and J.A. Todd held a meeting at Aaron's Exchange Hotel to promote the "English Association Game" in New South Wales, on 14 August 1880 the club played their first match. The oldest Australian rugby club, Sydney University Football Club, was already formed in 1863). In 1882, the Football Association invited the association of Scotland, Wales and Ireland to discuss the formation of a board to settle their differences and to organize an international championship. At a meeting in Manchester on 6 December 1882, the four football associations formed an International Football Board to look after the football rules. Each association was given equal voting rights. In the beginning the organization consisted of two representatives from each member. Nowadays the Board consists of four representatives nominated by FIFA and one of each United Kingdom association. The same year, the two-handed-throw-in was introduced. In 1883, the British/Home International Championship was born, this was the world's first international football tournament which was contested annually until the 1983/1984 season. In 1885, professionalism was legalized and "Arbroath" defeated "Bon Accord" (36-0) in the Scottish Cup which remains the largest score in a British first-class game.
|Arbroath - Bon Accord : 36-0
Date : 12 September 1885
Game : Scottish Cup - first round
Topscorer : John Petrie (13 goals)
Players Arbroath : Jim Milne sr. (goalkeeper), Bill Collie (defender), Tom Salmond (defender), Hen Rennie (midfield), Jim Milne jr. (midfield), Dyken Bruce (midfield), John Petrie (forward), Johnny Tackett (forward), Jim Marshall (forward), David Crawford (forward), Jim Buick (forward)
Remark : on the same day, "Dundee Harp" defeated "Aberdeen Rovers" (35-0) in the Scottish Cup first round
In the beginning, our favorite sport was named "dribbling game", in 1863 it was called "association football" or simply "football" referring to the Football Association. The other ballgame was "rugby rules" or simply "rugby" named after Rugby School and the rules set in 1871 by the Rugby Union. In the early years of 1880's, students of Oxford University usually abbreviated words by adding "-er" to the end. One of those students, Charles Wreford-Brown, was asked for a play of "rugger" meaning "rugby". Charles refused because he preferred "soccer" or "association football". It's hard to find when he said the word, some sources on internet mention the year "1863" but that's not possible.
son of William Wreford-Brown
Born : 9 October 1866, Clifton, Bristol
Died : 26 November 1951, Bayswater, Paddington, London
Education : Charterhouse School and Oxford University
1886-1898 : cricketer ; major teams were "Gloucestershire" and "Oxford University"
1889-1898 : international football player
1892 : representative of Old Carthusians
1894-1895 : captain of the national football team
1941-1951 : Vice-President of the Football Association
Two brothers died during World War I, another got an injury
son of William Wreford-Brown
Lieutenant 12th Div. 9th Battalion Essex Regiment
1918 : injured and send back to England for treatment
5th son of William Wreford-Brown
Born : February 1876, Clifton, Bristol
Education : Charterhouse School
1897 : joined the army, serving the British Empire
He won a military medal called the "Distinguished Service Order"
1912 : became Instructor at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst
1915 : fought and died in Belgium, his name is recorded on the Menin Gate (Ypres, Belgium)
Oswald Eric Wreford-Brown
6th son of William Wreford-Brown
Born : 21 July 1878, Clifton, Bristol
Died : 7 July 1916, near Corbie, France, in hospital after being wounded
Education : Charterhouse School
captain of the school football team
1899 : played in the England football team in a match against Germany
1900 : cricketer ; major team were "Old Carthusians" and "Gloucestershire"
member of the London Stock Exchange after leaving school
1914 : joined the army as a lieutenant in the Northumberland Fusiliers
1915 : became captain
1916 : injured and died on the Somme in France
he wrote many letters to his sister Mabel about life at the front, his last letter was dated "1 July 1916", on 4 July he was wounded and send to a hospital in Corbie, Albert (France) where he died on 7 July.
In 1888, "soccer" was in desperate need of reorganization. The F.A. Cup was a great success however the friendly games were often cancelled due to injuries or transport difficulties. It was at this time that William McGregor, member of Aston Villa FC, took the initiative and wrote to the major English clubs suggesting a structured league with each team playing each other in a home and away game, with two points to the winning team and one point to both teams in the event of a draw. On 22 March 1888 at "Anderton's Hotel" in Fleet Street, an initial meeting was held between the clubs of London. On 17 April 1888 at "The Royal Hotel" in Manchester, a meeting with the twelve most prominent clubs of England decided to form the "Football League". The twelve clubs were : Accrington FC, Aston Villa FC, Blackburn Rovers FC, Bolton Wanderers FC, Burnley FC, Derby County FC, Everton FC, Notts County FC, Preston North End FC, Stoke FC, West Bromwich Albion FC, Wolverhampton Wanderers FC. On 8 September 1888, the first football league competition started with "Preston North End" scoring the first goal ever, made by Jack Gordon. During the first season, "Preston North End" was also named "The Old Invincibles" because the club won this championship without losing any game and won the FA Cup without conceding a goal. Since 1888, winning the championship and the cup is also known as "the double". In 1891, the "Scottish League" was formed, also known as "Scottish Alliance", the members were : Airdrieonians, Ayr, East Stirlingshire, Morton, Kilmarnock, King's Park, Linthouse, Northern, Partick Thistle, Port Glasgow Athletic, St-Bernards, Thistle. In 1892, England expanded with a new division. The original league became "Division 1" with 16 clubs, the new league was "Division 2" with 12 clubs. At the end of the competition, test matches (play-offs) decided promotion/relegation. In 1893, "Division 2" expanded to 15 clubs with Arsenal FC, Liverpool FC, Middlesborough FC and Newcastle United FC being admitted to the league for the first time. Thereafter, in 1894 "Division 2" counted 16 teams, in 1898 both divisions had 18 teams.
Born : 1846, Braco, Perthsire, Scotland
Died : 1911, Birmingham, England
Carreer : moved to Birmingham and bought a drapery business in Aston, a rough area of the city.
1877 : committee member of Aston Villa FC as Vice-Chairman and then Chairman.
The man credited with idea of forming the "Football League". Prior to 1888, the only competitive matches played by clubs were in the FA Cup. Once knocked out of the FA Cup, clubs only had friendly matches to look forward to. With the "Football League", clubs were guaranteed a fixed number of competitive matches over the course of the season. William McGregor, whose club, Aston Villa FC, were one of the 12 founder members, became the first President of the Football League.
At the end of the 19th century, football was settled well in the United Kingdom. The sport was organized in "Associations" which held league and cup competitions. The federations were firstly created in England (1863), Scotland (1873), Wales (1876) and Ireland (1880). Meanwhile, countries of the British Empire learnt soon the sports which were played in England. Rugby and football were very popular among the students of public schools, while Universities played cricket. When they left school/university, many of them were in army or went abroad for getting a job in the British colonies, from Australia over India and South Africa to the Caribbean's. They introduced cricket and rugby rules, founded clubs and organized competitions. Later, the grounds were also used for playing football, not "soccer". The word "soccer" wasn't invented not before the 1880's. In North America, the Irish colonists were settled on the eastern coast and brought their football game with them. As we know, early 19th century, "football" was a mix of rugby and soccer, in England known as "dribbling game", which set the basics of "American Football". Nowadays, New York is linked with "Celtic" referring the Irish and Scottish roots. In Canada, the earliest "football" games were played from 1859 to 1865, the first game under "association" rules was in 1876 between the Toronto Lacrosse and the Carlton Cricket Club. In 1877, the first Dominion Football Association was formed in Canada with teams in the Toronto area represented. In 1880, the Western Football Association was formed in Ontario and from 1885, teams were send to play against teams from the American Football Association. In South America, football was made popular by Britain soccer teams who planned exhibition tours in Argentina and Brazil.
|The story of European football is totally different. Western
Europe knew already some kind of ballgame which was comparable with "dribbling
game" in England. School boys used all kind of objects to kick when
they played on the streets. In Belgium, Catholic public schools or
colleges introduced football around 1865 which was brought by English students.
The oldest Belgian club "Antwerp Football Club" was founded in 1880 and
the federation dated from 1895. Many European countries followed
this example, mostly with the help of British students or people of their
own country who visited England previously. In short time, whole
western Europe was obsessed about the ballgame, the need of an international
organization wasn't far away. On 21 May 1904, seven countries of
the European continent came together in Paris to form the FIFA (Federation
Internationale de Football Association) : Belgium, Denmark, France, Netherlands,
Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Nowadays, 100 year later, the FIFA
counts 204 members in the year 2004.
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