This Video from the... Ken Aston Referee Society -
|1. Corner Kick ~ CK
||4. Attacking Team Throw-In
||7. Second to last Defender
||10. Offside - Far Side of the Field
|2. Goal Kick ~ GK
||5. Defending Team Throw-In
||8. Second to last Defender
||11. Offside - Center of the Field
|3. F O U L
||6. Standing Ready
||9. O F F S I D E
||12. Offside - Near Side of the Field
The Assistant Referees also assist the Referee to control the match in
accordance with the Laws of the Game. In the event of undue interference
or improper conduct, the Referee will relieve an Assistant Referee of
his duties and make a report to the appropriate authorities.
1. WHAT LAW 6 SAYS:
Two Assistant Referees are appointed whose duties, subject to the
decision of the Referee, are to indicate:
- When the whole of the ball has passed out of the field of play
- Which side is entitled to a corner kick, goal kick or throw-in
- When a player may be penalized for being in an offside position
- When a substitution is requested
- When misconduct or any other incident has occurred out of the view of
- When offences have been committed whenever the Assistants are closer
to the action than the Referee (this includes, in particular
circumstances, offences committed in the penalty area)
- Whether, at penalty kicks, the goalkeeper has moved forward before the
ball has been kicked and if the ball has crossed the line
The Assistant Referees also assist the Referee to control the match in
accordance with the Laws of the Game. In particular, they may enter the
field of play to help control the 10 yard (9.15m) distance.
The duties of the Assistant Referee are now more clearly defined in the
Laws of the Game and increase his responsibility. Assistant Referees are
expected to give assistance to the Referee when they are in a better
position to see the incident, especially for fouls occurring inside the
It is important to understand that the specific distance from the
offence is not the main criteria. The most important consideration is
that the Assistant Referee has a better view of an incident.
At penalty kicks, Assistant Referees are also responsible for judging
whether the ball has crossed the goal line or not. (i.e. to indicate to
the Referee when the goalkeeper moves forward from his goal line at a
penalty kick and the ball does not enter the goal. The nature of the
signal to be given is to be determined by the officials in pre-match
Assistant Referees are also instructed that, whenever necessary, they
should enter the field of play to ensure that the 10 yard (9.15m)
distance is respected for free kicks taken near to where they are
The Referee controls the match in co-operation with his Assistant
Referees and, where applicable, the Fourth Official. The Referee should
act on the advice of Assistant Referees regarding incidents that he has
the event of undue interference or improper conduct, the Referee
will relieve an Assistant Referee of his duties and make a
report to the appropriate authorities.
You may need to take this action occasionally with Club
Assistant Referees (Club Linesmen) who misbehave.
2. The ASSISTANT REFEREES DUTIES. &
An Assistant Referee (also sometimes referred to as a Neutral Assistant
Referee) is a fully qualified Referee who has a very important part in
helping the Referee to control a game. Most new Referees will be
expected to ‘run’ a number of 'lines' as Assistant Referees before
attaining any promotion. New Referees will need to gain as much
experience as they can - both in the 'middle', and on the line. It does
take some time to become comfortable with ‘running the line’ and - in my
opinion, running the line - can sometimes be more difficult than actual
Refereeing. You need to concentrate 100%, all of the time; this is
difficult when the crowd or the ‘The Technical Area’ occupants are
baying at you from one yard behind. The ‘The Technical Area’ may be your
biggest problem, and you will need to learn how to control any
misconduct emanating from the Technical Area.
If the Referee becomes injured, the Senior Assistant Referee will take
over the Referee's duties. Senior Assistants must keep a close record of
the game. A Referee may hand over his notebook to the oncoming Assistant
Referee who should be prepared to take over in the middle, at any time.
Assistant Referees should never shake their head in disagreement when
the Referee makes a decision that the Assistant Referee does not wholly
agree with. Such signs, no matter how small, are picked up by the crowd,
the players and the coaches, and will damage the team spirit that is
essential between the Referee and his two Assistant Referees. If you do
not like the Referees decisions, keep your opinions to yourself, and do
not openly show your disagreement. These can be discussed with the
Referee after the game. The Assistant Referee should never undermine the
authority of the Referee in any way no matter how small.
Two Assistant Referees are appointed whose duties, subject to the
decision of the Referee, are to indicate:
When the ball is out of play and which side is entitled to a goal kick,
throw-in or corner kick. The whole of the ball must be over the boundary
line, either on the ground or in the air. The Assistant Referee
indicates which side is awarded a corner kick, goal kick or throw-in.
The Referee has the final say in making these decisions, in conjunction
with help from his Assistant Referees.
Which side is entitled to a corner kick, goal kick or throw-in - the
Assistant Referees will have been briefed by the Referee as to how he
wishes corner kicks and goal kicks to be indicated. Assistant Referees
can use a combination of both flag signals and/or body language to
indicate to the Referee whether a goal-kick or a corner-kick should be
given (e.g. body language - facing sideways and towards the half-way
line, with the flag down alongside the innermost leg, to indicate a
When a player may be penalized for being in an offside position - only
if it is an offence.An Assistant Referee - almost always - decides when
a player is ‘offside’ or not. The Referee will acknowledge the Assistant
Referee with a raised arm/hand signal if he (the Referee) wishes to
allow play to continue.
When a substitute is requested. The Senior Assistant Referee is normally
responsible for indicating to the Referee when a team wishes to make a
substitution. The Senior Assistant Referee is then responsible for
noting the substitute's name/number, and organizing when and where the
substitute can enter the Field of Play (from the half-way line). The
outgoing player must leave the field of play before the oncoming
substitute can enter. Use your common sense on local pitches where
substitutes can sometimes forget this. A Fourth Official - if available
- will normally deal with substitutions.
When misconduct or other incident has occurred out of vision of the
Referee. The Assistant Referees' are the extra 'eyes and ears' of the
Referee. If an Assistant Referee sees an incident which the Referee has
missed, it is that Assistant Referee's responsibility to bring this to
the attention of the Referee. The Referee, in conjunction with the
Assistant Referee will then discuss the incident, enabling the Referee
to take the appropriate action against the player, which could be: a
strong talking to: a caution: or a sending-off - depending on the nature
of the incident.
An Assistant Referee will need to complete a report of any misconduct if
he is the main witness of the incident.
Some County Football Associations also require the Assistant Referees to
also complete and submit reports for any sending-off offences
administered by the Referee.
When offences have been committed whenever the Assistant Referees are closer to
the action than the Referee (this includes, in particular circumstances,
offences committed in the penalty area) - The Assistant Referee, can
also indicate fouls, position of free-kicks, hand-balls, penalties and
generally help to control the match depending on the briefing
instructions given to him by the Referee before the game. The Assistant
Referees' task is to help the Referee to control the match in accordance
with the Laws of the Game.
Whether, at penalty kicks, the goalkeeper has moved forward before the
ball has been kicked and if the ball has crossed the line - the Referee
will have briefed the Assistant Referees prior to the game, to take up a
specific position (normally) on the goal line, near the goal, to act as
goal-judge, and to ensure that the goalkeeper does not move off his
goal-line before the ball has been kicked. Normally, the Referee will
have briefed the Assistant Referee to use body language by staying still
if he (the Assistant Referee) has spotted an infringement during the
taking of a penalty kick. This action indicates to the Referee that the
Assistant Referee believes that the penalty should be retaken - and
allows the Referee time to consult the Assistant Referee before allowing
or disallowing a goal. The Assistant Referee will have been briefed by
the Referee to run back to the touchline, if he (the Assistant Referee)
is happy that a goal has been scored legally during the taking of a
Assistant Referees should liaise closely during the game, with any
fourth official. (For example, if a team requests a substitution to be
made, the Fourth Official and the nearest Assistant Referee will work
together to ensure that the substitution request is brought to the
Referee's attention, and managed correctly.
The Referee should always brief Assistant Referees (and any Fourth
Official) in private, before each game. This allows the Referee to tell
them exactly what he wishes them to do. For example - some Referees like
to see a flag signal for goal kicks/corners; others prefer Assistant
Referees to use body language.
Pre-Match Briefing to Assistant Referees
Prior to the commencement of each game, the Referee will provide his
Assistant Referees with a briefing covering the duties mentioned above,
and to inform the Assistant Referees of what he (the Referee) requires
them to do. Amongst other things, the briefing allocates certain
responsibilities, and tells the Assistant Referees where to stand and
act in certain circumstances.
Each Referee will have his own style and briefing content.
One of the hardest duties for a newly promoted Referee is remembering
and standardizing his pre-Match briefing. There are many methods used to
remember exactly what you need to say to your Assistant Referees. Below
is the 'Alphabet' method I use (with brief notes). Of course, you can
substitute your own words or content in the alphabet listing. I'll leave
you to decide exactly what you want your Assistant Referees to do! But I
have included some content for you to consider.
I usually start of
with something along the lines of.........."The Aim is to work as a
team, enjoy to the game, and to ensure that the Laws are adhered to...."
How to deal with misconduct from the technical area. "Deal with any
minor misconduct yourself. Ignore most of the banter. Do not get
distracted. If you need to call me over, wait until play reaches a
natural stop, step onto the field of play and wave your flag towards me
rigorously. We will discuss what has happened, and then I will deal with
the culprits - you stand near me listening to what I say, but you face
the field of play. Whilst I am talking to the perpetrators, please do
not say anything unless I ask you to.
Sample brief covering swearing from the Technical Area: "Ignore the
usual banter from the ‘Bench’ but bring to my attention any very bad
language such as usage of the ‘F’ & ‘C’ words particularly directed at
the Referee, Assistant Referee or players, clearly aimed at destroying
the game or inciting the players. Remember exactly what was said.
Attract my attention at the next stoppage in play, by raising your flag
and stepping onto the field of play. I will then consult with you away
from others. If I need to approach the ‘Bench’ we will do so together.
You will stand alongside me, facing the field of play with your back to
the ‘Bench’, keeping an eye on the players on the field of play. I will
do all the talking, but listen for any reaction which may need to be
mentioned in any report."
"Stand behind the
corner kick taker on your side of the field of play, and come in along
the goal line if the corner kick is taking place on the far side of the
field of play."
Assistant Referee keeps his watch running all of the time. The Senior
Assistant Referee stops and starts his watch to correspond to stoppages
allowed by me (the Referee). Time-down hand signals are required in the
last 5 minutes of each half."
"I will be
making lots of eye contact with you. Let's work as a team and keep in
touch throughout the game. Do not be distracted by banter from
spectators etc. Keep your eyes on the field of play. If a melee of
players ensues, keep your eyes on the conflict, and don't start writing
notes until the incident has finished."
"You are fully
qualified Referees, so signal for any fouls that I have missed. Give me
some indication of what the foul is, and indicate with your flag, the
direction for the restart of play.
If a goal has been
scored, make eye contact with me, and run back up the touchline towards
the halfway line. If you believe that a goal has been scored, but play
momentarily carries on - signal vigorously with your flag. I will then
stop play, and discuss matters with you."
"Check that the goalkeeper has placed the ball inside the goal area
during goal kicks - but put more emphasis on getting back up the
touchline to watch for off sides. Stand adjacent to the edge of the
penalty area, check the correct positioning of the ball within the goal
area, and then sprint up the touchline to stand alongside the second
last defender. I would rather to you were in position to monitor off
sides, than worry unnecessarily about whether the ball is in the goal
area or not during goal kicks. Use body language to indicate a goal
"Keep your eyes
open if a melee of players develops. If you see any misconduct behind my
back (such as a player striking another player) immediately step on the
field of play and wave your flag vigorously to attract my attention. I
will discuss the appropriate action with you before speaking to any
players. Minor misconduct can be notified to me, and dealt with during a
natural stoppage in play".
of trouble, inspect and make a mental note of the perpetrators' numbers.
If I have not seen the incident, you will need to be perfectly sure who
the culprit(s) were, before I can take any appropriate corrective
Assistant Referee will patrol the 'Technical Area' side of the field of
play, the Junior Assistant Referee will patrol the far side touchline.
If I get an injury and am unable to continue, the Senior Referee will
take my place in the middle."
goalkeeper has the ball in his hands, make sure he does not step put of
the penalty area before he releases the ball. But place more emphasis on
gaining a position to watch out for off sides, when the ball is punted
up field by the Goalkeeper. I will deal with the goalkeeper's 6 seconds
possession time limit."
"The Senior Referee
will make a note of the which team kicked off in the first half, the
score, and cautions/sending off details etc. The Junior Referee should
always keep his eyes on the field of play, and is not required to make
any notes during the game."
"We will walk out
together as a team, meet in the middle, welcome the captains, and
complete the coin tossing ceremony. At the end of each half, meet me on
the field play - and we will make our way off the field and towards the
changing-room as a team."
After the coin
tossing ceremony, check the goal nets and make your way to your
respective touchlines in readiness for the start of the game."
yours at all times. If I want to keep play going following an offside
flag signal, I will acknowledge you with a raised arm (demonstrate). If
I completely miss an offside flag, keep the flag raised until I notice
it - OR - if play breaks to the advantage of the defending team, drop
your flag and allow play to continue. Let me know at the end of each
half - if I have missed any of your signals."
award a penalty, look to see where I am, and if I have seen the
incident, allow me the first chance to make the decision to award a
penalty or not. If the incident occurs out of my sight or if I am a long
distance away, make sure you are 100% sure it is a penalty before you
signal. Signal by raising your flag across your chest. Whilst the
penalty is taking place, position yourself along the goal line, about 10
to 15 yards from the corner flag. You will act as goal judge, and to
check that the goalkeeper has not stepped off the goal line prior to the
ball being kicked. If you have seen an infringement during the taking of
a penalty kick. Remain standing where you are. I will discuss matters
with you before making a decision. If the penalty had been taken
correctly, make your way quickly back to your touchline."
"Let me have
any questions at the end of my briefing".
touchline adjacent to the right wing positions, and stay in this same
position, on the same side of the field of play in the second half".
Assistant Referee will deal with all substitutions. Ensure that
substitutes enter at the halfway line, and not until the outgoing player
has left the field of play. Keep a note of the substitutes names and
"You watch for
feet faults, and I will inspect arm faults. If you are unsure of which
way to award a throw-in, just raise your flag straight up. Make eye
contact with me, and I will then make the direction decision. If you
signal one way, and I signal the other, please drop your flag
immediately, and the throw will be taken in the direction given by me.
(This is not done to undermine you, or to say that you were wrong and I
was right, it is done to avoid any confusion).
If 'U' want to
complete this alphabet, think of a few more words to help you.
The brief I use only goes up to letter "T".
Even though the above brief is fairly comprehensive, there are a a lot
more things that you could include. The above brief is a small part of
one that I regularly use. You will need to formulate your own style and
As you climb up the promotional Refereeing ladder, there will be other
briefing areas to consider: security, policing, crowd control, media
relations, photographers and many more topics to be covered in your
brief, and you will need to read the Rules of each competition to look
out for other topics such as the number of occupants allowed in the
technical area, inspecting players' equipment etc...............
It does take some time to memorizes a complex briefing, so do not be
afraid of writing down your briefing list, and reading from it in your
first games involved with Assistant Referees. You will soon learn to
memorize your briefing after a few games. It is far better to cover all
your topics, than to try and be clever and remember your entire brief by
heart in your early games. But please remember - the briefing you give
to your Assistant Referees is not a list of orders, it should be a
two-way communication between you and your two Assistants (and Fourth
Official is present). Please listen and discuss any queries from them.
You are a team, and this is an ideal opportunity to forge that
3. RUNNING ALONG THE LINE:
The following are some points for Assistant
Referees to consider when running along the touchline.
- Usually run off the field of play, behind the line and not on it. As a
very last resort, run on the pitch itself if the touchline becomes very
muddy - but only if play is well away from you, on the other side of the
field of play. You may need to take this action if the touchline becomes
very muddy and slippery.
- Hold the flag downwards whilst running. Show as much flag area as you
can towards the Referee at all times. Switch hands to keep the flag
always showing towards the field of play side and visible to the Referee
- especially during floodlight games when visibility is impaired.
- You need to keep a close eye on play whilst running, but also to be
aware of any potholes etc.
- Move any spectators away from the touchline if they are encroaching.
- Skip sideways to keep level with 2nd last defender, when watching for
- Run backwards when you need to - especially near the corner flag.
- Follow the ball all the way to the goal line.
- On corners taken on the far side from you, and when you have come
along the goal line to act as goal judge, run diagonally back across
field of play to regain your touchline position.
- Make sure that any items carried in your pockets are secure, and do
not 'jangle' about. This can be very distracting.
- Never run to collect the ball for players. Keep your eyes on the game
at all times. You are not a 'Ball-Boy'.
- Be prepared to intervene to prevent trouble between players if at all
- Completely ignore the inevitable jibes from spectators.
- If necessary, come onto the field of play to enforce the 10-yard
(9.15m) distance on free kicks near you.
Fitness is the most important factor after ability, for the progress of
a good Referee or Assistant Referee. Fitness training is a requirement
of a successful active Referee.
The following are some fitness points to bear in mind.
- You will need to attain a good level of fitness to enable you to run
the line efficiently.
- Lack of fitness will lead to verbal abuse i.e. "Keep up with play lino!"
Being closer to an incident discourages dissent by proximity.
- Learn to to your new
position, then .
- Practice short sprints, to and fro.
- As a newly qualified Referee, use your early games to build up
- Try and keep up with play as much as you can - you can very often
prevent trouble, by just being near to the incidents.
- Stretch your
muscles you come out
to officiate the game
5. TALKING TO PLAYERS:
The following are some points to bear in mind when talking to players.
- Do not involve yourself with players unless you have to. Just say "Get
on with it". Never swear at anyone.
- Avoid eye contact with frustrated players.
- Looking away, and running to a new position is usually the best way to
ignore comments. But do not ignore comments that require disciplinary
action by the Referee.
- Do not say or indicate ‘Play on’ or ‘Advantage’ to players. Leave this
to the Referee.
- Let players know where to place ball during a free kick, or where to
stand during a throw-in. Talk to them.
- You do not have to get involved if there is a melee of fighting
players, the best thing is to stand back and just mentally note who is
doing what. In these situations, you will be the Referee's extra pair of
- The Referee should act swiftly and positively, when players berate the
- Try and keep your sense of humor at all times. And smile...
6. PENALTIES, WERE TO STAND:
The following are some points consider during the taking of penalty
- The position for an Assistant Referee is as a
- on or
near the goal line. At the point where the penalty area line joins the
- Do not flag, but stand still if you see an infringement during the
taking of a penalty (e.g. if the goalkeeper moves off his goal line
before the ball has been kicked and a goal is prevented). Staying still
and using body language tells the Referee that you have seen an
infringement and that you wish to speak to him. Run back to the
touchline if you are happy with the penalty - this body language tells
the Referee that you (the Assistant Referee) are happy that a goal was
scored correctly from the penalty kick. (But - do not run back to the
touchline, if the Referee indicates that the penalty kick must be
- Be prepared to take details in penalty shootouts at the end of a game.
You will be asked to be either a goal judge or to note and organize the
players from within the center circle.
- Goalkeepers must stay on goal line before the ball has been kicked
during the taking of a penalty, but they can travel or move along the
- When a team finishes the match with a greater number of players than
their opponents, they shall reduce their numbers to equate with that of
their opponents and inform the Referee of the name and number of each
player excluded. The team captain has this responsibility.
- Before the start of kicks from the penalty mark the Referee shall
ensure that only an equal number of players from each team remain within
the center circle and they shall take the kicks
This arrangement for kicks from the penalty mark is applied at the end
of play when one team has fewer players on the field of play than the
other because of expulsion or injury and all eligible substitutes have
The team with more players must reduce their number of players to equate
with the other team. This is to avert the following situation when, all
the players in the team with fewer players have taken their kicks. In
the past, the team with the fewer players were allowed to chose one of
their players who had already taken a kick - and of course they would
always chose their most skilful penalty kick taker. This gave them an
unfair advantage over the team with the full quota of players.
The team captain is responsible for informing the Referee of the name
and number of the player(s) who will not take kicks from the penalty
mark. i.e. the player who is nominated to leave the field of play to
balance the numbers of both teams.
Below is a template to use when noting the results during a penalty
shoot-out. Those of you who do not have the appropriate software can
just print off the copy shown on the Penalty Shoot-out Card design page
of this web site - it works just as well! Or design your own. I have
used my design on many occasions, and it is certainly better that having
to write on a blank piece of paper.
... to Download your set of Card's
Assistant Referees' are fully qualified Referees, and should know when
misconduct has taken place, this includes:
- A Foul or a Penalty.
- Verbal misconduct.
- Physical Misconduct, spiting, fighting, striking etc.
- Hand Gestures ( = Offensive/Abusive Language)
- The Referee usually acts on your advice.
Before an Assistant Referee flags or indicates a foul, he needs to take
account of how the Referee is handling the match. The Referee may have
already asked the Assistant Referees during his pre-match brief, to give
him (the Referee) the first 'bite' when a penalty incident occurs. Eye
contact between the officials is important in such circumstances.
An Assistant Referee is very often nearer and has a better view of an
offence than the Referee.
Players and the crowd regard Assistant Referees' as an easy target to
- An Assistant Referee must let the Referee actually deal
with any misconduct.
- The ‘Bench’ or Technical Area will probably be the
biggest problem an Assistant Referee will have. Bring any misconduct
incidents to the Referee’s attention.
- Run to meet the Referee in the center of the Field of
Play at the end of both halves. This strengthens the security of all the
3 officials as they make their way to the changing rooms.
- Report any misconduct by Club officials.
- Talk to players who are not retreating the required
distance during free kicks near you.
- An Assistant Referee is the Referee’s eye when the
Referee is dealing with other incidents such as an injury, disciplining
a player or dealing with a free kick during the game. Keep your eyes on
the players and not in your notebook or on the crowd.
- Be vigilant when the ball is out of play.
- Enter the field of play, where practicable, to help
control the 10 yard (9.15m) distance during the taking of free kicks.
- Control Substitutes and trainers coming onto the field
- Arrive early to allow the Referee to brief you on what
he expects you to do during the game.
8. COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE REFEREE:
There are many types of signals
between the Referee and the Assistant Referee during a game,
which are listed below, many of which are used without the players even
Referee uses fingers outstretched downwards along the outside of the
shorts or on his shirt to indicate to the Referee 1,2,3,4,or 5 minutes
remaining in the half.
Referee can use the clenched fist either across the chest or down the
side of the shorts to indicate to the Referee that 45 minutes have
that you are happy with any decisions - or not!
Can be used
to indicate that you are happy with the Referee's decision - for
example, after a goal has been allowed by the Referee or the award of a
Movement of the
eyes can indicate a free kick direction to the Referee. Also allows the
Assistant Referees' and the Referee to feel part of a team and to build
up a rapport.
the hand can indicate to the Referee that you've seen a hand-ball by a
the Referee that you have seen a player tugging an opponents shirt.
hand direction signal will indicate to the Referee which side is
entitled to the free kick. (Note - Assistant Referees should never
indicate advantage - this is always the prerogative of the Referee).
The flag is used
to indicate many options as laid down in the Laws of Associated
will indicate to the Referee, that you wish to talk to him.
Miming: You can mime words to the Referee - for example "No" to indicate
that a player was not in an offside position.
Body Language: By turning your body at right angles to the field of play
and facing up towards the halfway line, this tells the Referee that you
have indicated a goal kick. By running around the corner flag, this
indicates a corner kick. These body language signals are done without
the players knowing what decision the Assistant Referee has made, and
allows the Referee some leeway should the Referee wish to change the
corner kick indicated by the Assistant Referee, to a goal kick. This
prevents unnecessary conflicts of simultaneous opposing signals given by
the Assistant Referee and the Referee.
10 Minute Refereeing:
For the Referee to control a game in a flexible and efficient way, he
will need to constantly vary the degree of leniency he allows players.
This will allow the Referee to adjust his application of the Laws. In
applying strict Law, the Referee can control periods of a game, when
teams are in their most heightened state of battle (for example,
following a flash point). In periods of ‘heightened state’, there are
several things that a Referee can do to retain control:
- (a) Allow no advantage and stop play for every foul.
- (b) Work much harder at identifying and being near the confrontation areas.
- (c) Warn players in a more open and public way.
- (d) Discipline players in strict accordance of the Laws.
- (e) Deal swiftly with acts of dissent. Etc…………..
Conversely, during a less confrontational period, the Referee can allow
the teams more leniency (such as allowing greater use of the advantage
clause), thus increasing the flow and enjoyment of the game for all.
A study at Cardiff University revealed that there are important
10-minute periods in each game, which nearly always require stricter
policing by the Referee. For example, the first 10 minutes of a game;
the five minute period immediately before and immediately after half
time, and the last ten minutes of the game. It was found that a large
proportion of problems occurred within these periods. In addition to
this, further variable ten-minute periods (for example, following a
trouble flash-point or the scoring of an important goal) were also
identified as periods where confrontation and trouble abounded.
The analogy of this is to consider riding a frisky horse. To gain
initial control of the horse, a rider will concentrate on using his
riding skills to constantly pull in the reins when the horse misbehaves
itself in any small way. Once the horse has ‘got the message’, the rider
can release his grip on the reins thus allowing both the horse and the
rider to relax. If later on, the horse starts to misbehave, the rider
can pull in the reins again for a period until the horse is back under
the control. Using this method allows the rider to demonstrate to the
horse what he can, and what he cannot get away with!
In general, Referees already adjust the level of control they use in a
game, but this is normally done in a random manner. The ‘Ten Minute
Refereeing’ method used by top Referees is a more structured and
conscious way to gain initial control of a game when it matters, and to
adjust the level of control following ‘flash-point’ incidents. This
method allows the Referee to maximize his capability by focusing his
(fitness and mental) resources into gaining proper control of the game
in those periods of the game historically identified as being more
troublesome than others.
When a Referee is officiating with Assistant Referees, there are two
signals that the Referee will use to tell his Assistants when he intends
to start (or finish) a ‘Ten Minute Refereeing’ period.
| An arm
down-stretched with the hand clenched into a fist tells the
Assistant Referee that the Referee intends to take stricter
control of the game during the next ten minutes. During this
tighter control ten-minute period, the Assistant Referees will
also be expected to follow the Referee’s example by strictly
applying the ‘Letter of the Law’ when making decisions whilst
patrolling the touchline.
|An arm down-stretched
with the fingers outstretched tells the Assistant Referee that
the Referee has reached the end of his ‘Ten Minute Refereeing’
tight control period, and will be officiating in a more relaxed
and tolerant way. It is important that all the match officials
follow the lead of the Referee. It is no good if the Referee is
tightening down on control in a game, if one of the Assistant
Referees is doing the opposite.
9. THE REFEREE'S DIAGONAL:
|It is an individual
Referee's decision, to decide which touchline his Assistant
Referees will patrol. There is nothing in the Laws to stipulate
Some Referees prefer their Assistants to patrol the touchline
area nearest to the players' left-back position, and others
prefer their Assistant Referees to patrol the touchline nearest
to the right-back player position. Some authorities (and
Countries) insist on one method or the other.
New Referees should be encouraged to vary the positioning of
their 'Linesmen' before they become too accustomed to only
running in one diagonal direction.
Most Referees like to keep their Assistant Referees patrolling
the same touchline in both halves of the game. But some ask
their Assistant Referees to swap touchlines in the second half -
and some have been known on the odd occasion to make their
Assistant Referees run the far end of the same touchline that
they patrolled in the first half.
The general method is to keep Assistants on the same touchline
throughout the game - the senior more experienced Assistant
Referee normally takes the 'Technical Area' side (because he is
more experienced in dealing with any unruly 'bench' occupants.)
It can sometimes be useful to allow the junior Assistant Referee
to 'have a go' at controlling the technical area side of the
field of play. This will allow the Junior Assistant Referee to
gain experience with dealing with the Technical Area occupants,
and management of the substitutions.
The Referee will normally run up and down a diagonal from one
corner flag to the other, diagonally across the field of play
during the game. The Assistant Referees will be asked to run
respective touchlines, depending on which diagonal the Referee
runs during a game.
The Referee's diagonal is from bottom right corner to top left
The Assistant Referees are therefore positioned (as also
depicted in Figs 8a & 8b) alongside the players' left back
touchline positions at either end of the field of play.
If the Referee decides to run an opposite diagonal from bottom
left corner to top right corner, then his Assistant Referees
would patrol the touchline nearest to the players' right back
The idea of running a diagonal, is to maximize the Referees
energy by enabling him to keep the play action between himself
and his nearest Assistant Referee - without having to cover
every blade of grass!.
Before deciding which area of the touchline the Assistant
Referees should patrol, the following factors should be
considered by the Referee.....
The 'geography' of the respective 'Technical Areas' during the
pre-match field inspection. Is the technical area marked? Are
they near to each other? Are they big enough to contain the
permitted occupants - if not, where will the occupants stand? Is
one bigger than the other and better equipped thus giving an
advantage to one team? Will the Assistant Referee run past the
technical areas on his allocated touchline, and are they near
enough for him to control and monitor? What is the state of the
touchline? - it is very common for the left back touchlines to
become muddy and bumpy due to the constant running up and down
by Assistant Referees. Where is most of the crowd standing? If
there are no technical areas, where will the teams camp?
Running diagonals with Club Linesmen is totally different to running
diagonals with Assistant Referees. The Referee with Club Linesmen will
need to judge the capabilities of both his Club Linesmen. For example,
if one of the Club Linesmen is of the breed "Wellington boots, fag in
mouth, pace of a snail, has not got a clue about offside etc" and the
other Club Linesman is of the breed "I am a Registered Referee and have
been Refereeing 20 years" and he can run and signal better than you can!
etc. etc. Then the Referee can adjust his diagonal to apply more
emphasis on being nearer the ‘fag in mouth’ half of the field of play.
Thus giving more responsibility to the more experienced Club Linesman.
This enables the Referee to make most of the ‘fag end’ decisions
himself, and quickly correct the wrong decisions of the snail! Every
game is different - it is all a case of balancing the amount of
usefulness you can get out of each Club Linesman. In general, I find
Club Linesmen to be excellent – some of then are even better than proper
Assistants that I have come across. If this is the case, I always try
and persuade them to take up the whistle, and have been successful on
many occasions. The strange thing is that some of them quickly pass you
on the promotion ladder and leave you well behind! But good luck to
The majority of British Referees ask their Assistant Referees to run
right wings, and this is confirmed by the worn out areas of grass along
each of the right wing touchlines. Sir Stanley Rous (president of FIFA
1934) introduced the diagonal system of control for Referees, and up
until the late 1980's it was expected that Referees would alternate
their Assistant Referees in each half. But around this time FIFA agreed
that the Referee should be allowed to run whichever diagonal he was more
comfortable with, and so now, an Assistant Referee will more than likely
stay in the same position throughout the match.
10: INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSISTANTS
Source UEFA Training Ground Site
UEFA's Referees Committee has drawn up a list of conclusions and
instructions for Assistant Referees following the inaugural UEFA seminar
for Assistant Referees.
The instructions apply to Assistant Referees in matches in all of UEFA's
competitions, and have been compiled with the objective of reinforcing
the uniform interpretation and application of the Laws of the Game.
UEFA Referees Development Program 2000/01
1st Seminar for Assistant Referees
16-18 July 2001
UEFA Headquarters - House of European Football, Nyon
Attention is drawn to the following decisions made at the 1st UEFA
Seminar for international Assistant Referees for the benefit of
international football in Europe by adopting a standard approach in the
performances of Assistant Referees.
It was felt that these practices will reinforce the uniform
interpretation and application of the Laws of the Game.
1. If an Assistant Referee has any doubt about an offside offence the
flag should not be raised (i.e. benefiting the attacking team).
2. To ensure correct judgment of offside offences, an Assistant Referee
should not raise the flag before considering the following criteria, so
called "wait and see" technique:
- a. Movement of the ball (direction, speed, distance, any deflection,
- b. Involvement of the player in active play by:
- Interfering with play or
- Interfering with an opponent or
- Gaining an advantage.
3. If a flag signal for offside is given and is not seen immediately by
the referee; the Assistant Referee must keep signaling until it has been
recognized or the ball is clearly in control of the defending team (the
electronic beep signal is used to alert the referee to the flag signal).
Ball out of the field of play
4. Whenever the ball leaves the field of play, the flag signal of the
assistant referee should show clearly the correct restart and direction.
In clear throw-in situations, the Assistant Referee can directly show
the direction (along the whole touch line). But if he has any doubt
about the direction, the Assistant Referee should simply raise his flag,
make eye contact with the Referee and follow the Referee's signal.
On very tight decisions, when the ball stays in play, a discreet hand
signal could give valuable support to the referee.
5. Whenever an Assistant Referee signals the ball out of the field of
play (even if players continue to play the ball) he must retain the
signal until acknowledged by the referee taking action.
6. When the ball enters a goal:
To confirm a valid goal has been scored, an Assistant Referee should
display clear movement down the touchline towards the center line. In
borderline cases, this movement should be clear (sprint) to be
recognized by the referee. To confirm a goal, the Assistant Referee
should not raise his flag.
If in his opinion a goal has not been scored correctly, the Assistant
Referee should stand still, retaining any signal already given. The
Referee may then choose to consult further if he needs additional
7. An Assistant Referee must use a raised flag signal to advise the
referee that he has seen a foul committed (or unsporting behavior or
violent conduct) when he is better positioned than the Referee and the
referee has not clearly acted on the offence. If the Assistant Referee
has additional information, concerning the offence, he wishes to give to
the Referee or if the Referee has not seen his flag signal the
electronic beep signal should be used.
It was agreed that such action by an Assistant Referee would be taken
for all appropriate offences including those committed inside the
8. If a flag signal for any offence is not seen immediately by the
Referee, the Assistant Referee must keep signaling until the Referee
acknowledges him or he recognizes a clear advantage to the team against
which the offence has been committed.
9. Offences of violent conduct seen and signaled by an Assistant Referee
must be acted upon in accordance with the Laws of the Game by the
referee. If play has been stopped for the disciplinary action (even if
the signal has not been seen immediately and play has continued), the
restart must also be in accordance with the Laws (free kick / penalty
kick). However, if the Assistant Referee's signal is not seen
immediately and play has been restarted for a subsequent situation only
the appropriate disciplinary action can be taken against the offending
10. Where a Referee seeks guidance from an Assistant Referee concerning
the exact location of an offence near the boundary of the penalty area
the action of the Assistant Referee should be as follows:
- a. If the offence is inside the penalty area - the Assistant Referee
moves visibly down the touchline towards the corner flag.
- b. If the offence is outside the penalty area - the Assistant Referee
stands still having moved to be in line with the edge of the penalty
Obvious incorrect decision of the Referee
11. If an Assistant Referee knows that a referee has made an obvious
disciplinary error (e.g. two yellow cards to the same player without
sending him off, red or yellow card to the wrong player, player kicked
the ball twice at free kick, etc) he must intervene immediately (flag
and beep or even enter the field of play). The other Assistant Referee
(or 4th official) should if necessary, also assist in such case.
Control of the 9.15m distances
12. When a Referee chooses to use the help of an Assistant Referee on
the field of play to control the 9.15m distance from the ball at
free-kick, it is recommended that the Assistant Referee does not
physically measure the 9.15m but rather asserts his control from the
position of the ball. This exceptional on field involvement of the
Assistant Referee is recommended only for free kicks very near the
Free kick close to the penalty area
13. At free kicks close to the penalty area, the Assistant Referee
should position himself in line with the second last defender
(controlling the offside), but also with awareness of the goal line. The
referee should control the ball and the wall.
After an offside
14. When possible an Assistant Referee, after a free kick for offside
has been given, should position himself in line with the spot where the
ball should be positioned to restart the game. He should then
immediately take up a position to control the offside line (level with
the second-last defender), which is his priority.
Goal kick and goal clearance
15. For goal kicks and when the goalkeeper is in possession of the ball
inside his own penalty area, it is advised that the assistant
occasionally checks that the ball is correctly positioned or that the
goalkeeper does not cross the 16 meter line before releasing the ball
from his hands. This should be done in convenient situations (e.g.
second last defender near the penalty area). Control of offside from
subsequent play is the priority concern.
16. For corner kicks, it is recommended that the Assistant Referee involved
takes a position behind the flag in line with the goal line.
17. When a penalty kick is awarded during the normal course of play, the
assistant should be on the goal line where it meets the penalty area
18. For kicks from the penalty mark to determine the winner of a match,
one assistant should be positioned on the goal line where it meets the
goal area boundary line, with the other Assistant Referee controlling the
players within the center circle.
19. When a substitution takes place, the Assistant Referee 1 should move
towards the halfway line and assist the 4th official in the procedure.
When the procedure is fully completed, the Assistant Referee will take
his position and then give a signal for the restart to the Referee.
Special awareness should be given in case of simultaneous substitutions
and / or a substitution immediately after a red card.
20. It is recommended that an Assistant Referee hold the flag in his
hand nearest to the field of play by switching hands whenever he changes
his direction of movement so that the flag is visible to the referee at
any time. It is suggested to the associations to instruct new assistant
referees in this way, however this technique is not compulsory for
experienced assistant referees. The Referee Observer shall continue to
assess the performance of the Assistant Referee according the accuracy
of his decisions.
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Questions and Answers:
This web site and the advice and answers to any questions are not
sanctioned by or affiliated with any governing body of soccer. The
opinions expressed on this site should not be considered official
interpretations of the Laws of the Game. Although the content of the
latest Laws are included on this site, the majority of the content is
the opinion of the Webmaster and other Referees worldwide. If you need
an official ruling you should contact your local
representative/association or visit the FIFA, or the English FA web
sites for the Laws themselves.
Questions and Answers:
Question 1: When the ball
went out of play, the Assistant Referee pointed his flag one way, and
the Referee pointed his arm the in the opposite direction. Even though
the Assistant Referee pointed his flag in the correct direction, as soon
as he noticed the Referee pointing the other way, he immediately lowered
his flag. Why can't the Assistant Referee 'stick to his guns' and
overrule the Referee?
Answer 1: During his pre-match
brief to his Assistant Referees, the Referee will have already
instructed his colleagues what to do, should they point opposite ways to
him during throw-ins. The general briefing is for the Assistant Referees
to immediately lower their flag - the Referee controls the game, and his
decision in play is always final. It does not matter whether the
Assistant Referee or the Referee's decision was correct in indicating
their direction. The important thing is to show unity, because it does
no good, for match officials to have public disagreements during the
game. If the Assistant Referee thinks that the Referee is making too
many wrong calls, then this should be discussed with the Referee at half
time or after the end of the game. Although players will make a big
issue about such occurrences, Referees are only human, and will
sometimes make mistakes in the direction a throw-in etc. It can be very
difficult on occasions for Assistant Referees to see exactly which
player the ball last touched before it crossed the touchline. Match
officials should not have any 'hang-ups' about whether they think their
decision is right or is wrong. The main thing is they should all be
strong and positive, because if they show any weakness, the players will
be sure to provoke them further.
Question 2: Is there a
correct way to execute flag signals?
Answer 2: Yes. I believe that
the Assistant Referee role is more difficult and more taxing than the
Referee. Flag signaling is the Assistant Referees' main tool for
communication. Using the flag is an 'art in itself' that is not normally
taught properly to our newly qualified Referees. It can also be very
difficult for 'mature' Referees to change old flag habits. The FIFA Law
book also shows correct flag signals in picture form.
Here are some Assistant Referee tips for good 'flagging'!
The aim of BELOW is to show you the correct Referee and Assistant
(a) Learn to change hands when holding the flag. Keep the flag unfurled
at full length so that it is always facing the field of play. This is
especially important during floodlight evening games where it can be
difficult for the Referee to see the Assistant Referees clearly. This
will involve switching hands when you change your running direction
along the touchline - after a while, you will find that you are
switching hands automatically. A good Assistant Referee will always swap
hands, thereby keeping the maximum flag area visible towards the field
of play and the Referee at all times.
(b) When signaling for a throw-in, just snap your flag 45 degrees in the
direction that the throw is to be taken. There is no need to keep waving
the flag as though you were conversing in semaphore with the Referee.
Some Assistant Referees prefer to raise the flag vertically to indicate
that the ball has traveled over the touchline, and then immediately drop
it to 45 degrees in the direction of the throw.
(c) Unless the Referee had briefed you differently, if the Referee
signals the opposite way to you during a throw-in. Immediately drop your
flag and remain stationary. The Referee has ultimate control of the
game, and it is his decision that counts. Don't worry about whether you
made the correct decision or not. If you leave your flag pointing in the
opposite direction to that indicated by the Referee, you will increase
the chances of abuse being throw in your direction. It also demeans the
teamwork bond necessary between the match officials. This has been
(d) When running with the flag, keep it extended downwards and facing
the field of play. Do not run along the touchline pumping your flag like
the 'wheels of a steam train' - this will totally confuse the Referee
and everyone else watching you.
(e) During 'set-piece' situations such as free kicks or penalties, and
when the Referee is on the other side of the field of play, change your
flag hand to allow the Referee the best possible view of your flag. The
Referee will take up various positions during set plays. And will be
looking to you (the Assistant Referee) to signal quickly for any
infringements - make sure the Referee has the best possible view of your
(f) Always take two sets of flags to matches. Flags can easily become
damaged especially the wooden versions.
(g) If the Referee has missed your flag signal, raise it horizontally
and wave it about a few times. This will make it easier for the Referee
to see. As soon as he notices your flag signal, place it in the correct
position depending on what you were originally 'flagging' for.
(h) If the Referee does not see your offside flag, leave it up until it
is brought to his attention. If subsequent play falls to the advantage
of the defending team, drop your flag as soon as practical and allow
play to continue. Mention to the Referee (at half or full time) any flag
signals that he (the Referee) has missed. The Referee will normally
acknowledge his Assistant Referee during play, if he (the Referee)
wishes to keep play going in such circumstances.
(i) During offside, leave your offside flag signal in position until the
defending player has acknowledged the exact position that the ball must
be placed for the indirect free kick. Then move away quickly to your
best position along the touchline.
(j) If your flag wraps itself around the flagstick when you are making a
signal, try to unfurl the flag by moving the flagstick around in small
circles. Try to always have the flag showing its full-unfurled length.
(k) If you are not sure which ways to give a throw-in -just raise your
flag vertically, look towards the Referee, who should quickly notice
your predicament. The Referee should help you out and make the decision
for you, by indicating the direction with his hand/arm. It can sometimes
be impossible, especially when the ball is very near to you, to see
which player the ball last touched before crossing the touchline. Good
eye contact with the Referee is essential during such instances. A good
Referee will instantly recognize that your vertical flag indicates a
throw-in, but that you (the Assistant Referee) are not sure which
direction it should be taken.
(l) When was the last time that you actually checked your flags to see
if they are fully serviceable - do it now!
(m) There is no excuse for dirty flags! Make sure they are clean before
(n) One subtle trick sometimes agreed between match officials, is for
the Assistant Referee to discretely point to either the yellow or red
flag square (yellow card or red card?) to indicate the severity of an
offence to the Referee - although I would not be too happy about using
this method myself. If this subtle signal is noticed by players and then
the Referee decides to take alternative action, it could lead to
problems. For example, if the Assistant Referee flags for a foul and
then points to the red square to indicate to the Referee that he (the
Assistant) believes the foul warrants a red card - but the Referee then
decides to only issue a yellow card - if the subtle signal is spotted by
an opposing player, then that player could challenge the inconsistency
of both the Referee and his Assistant Referee. Good signal - but if used, it
must be used carefully and very discretely.
These are just a few tips
Question 3: What can an
Assistant Referee do about spectators or officials who always argue
against decisions, or sit too close to the touchline, or even on the
field of play itself.
Answer 3: It's best to just ignore most foolish comments and concentrate
on the game. If spectators are interfering with the game by being too
close to the touchline, or encroaching onto the field of play itself,
then ask them to move back. If they continually encroach even after your
instructions to them - bring this to the attention of the Referee. He
will them sort it out for you. If you (the Assistant Referee) need to
talk to parents, officials or substitutes for whatever reason, do it in
a calm but stern voice - you will get much further than if you yell or
get upset with them (it takes two to argue, so make sure you are not one
of them!). Always keep control of your emotions - even though this can
be very difficult at times.
Question 4: Is the use of
microphones and earpieces such a good thing for match officials?
Answer 4: I suppose there is some potential for improving communications
between match officials. I'm not in favor of any technology being used
myself. Microphones and ear pieces were experimented with during most of
the 1999/2000 seasons here in England, it lasted a while, but match
officials now generally do without them. Referees with their ears
taped-up, and Assistants talking to their flags made them vulnerable to
even more ridicule. I believe that technology needs to advance further
to make such methods less intrusive and more comfortable and efficient
for the users. Referees were very often seen adjusting there tapped ear
pieces - and this can only detract from the Referees main task of
concentrating on the game itself. The buzzing armband seems to still
work OK. During off sides, the Assistant Referee presses a button on his
flagstick, which in turn vibrates a concealed armband on the Referees
Before long, we will have remote controls that can be passed out to
allow spectators control of the Referee himself!! Whatever next???
Question 5: During a match, a
defender commits a reckless foul on an attacker. The Referee stops play,
and the defender is instantly shown a yellow card by the Referee. Whilst
the attacking teams are preparing to take the free kick, the Referee
notices that the Assistant Referee has his flag raised indicating an
offside decision that occurred moments before the reckless tackle. What
should the Referee do, and should he rescind the yellow card?
Answer 5: The offside came before the foul, so an indirect free kick
should be awarded to the defending side for the first offside offence.
The yellow card remains. The tackle was still reckless - it does not
matter whether it was done after the Assistant Referee flagged for
offside. In such cases, the Referee should consult his Assistant before
making any decisions.
Question 6: What is the best
position for the Referee and the Assistant Referee to take during free
kicks near the penalty areas?
Answer 6: It really depends on the individual Referee. He will have
briefed his Assistant Referees on their respective positions. The normal
position for the Referee to take, is wide of any defensive wall, or in a
position to afford him the best angle to view the players and the goal
line itself (in the likelihood of a goal being scored direct). The
Referee should control the ball and any defensive wall. This can be done
from any point, out wide, between the goal line and the position of the
free kick. The Assistant Referee usually stands in line with the second
last defender to watch for offside infringements - but also with
awareness of the goal line. I have seen Referees ask their Assistant Referee, to
be goal judge, and take a position down on the goal line near the corner
flag - but this gives the Assistant Referee more distance to run if play
quickly breaks back up field. The Referee should endeavor to keep the
play (active area) between himself and his nearest Assistant Referee.
This gives the Referee the best possible view, and allows him to see any
flag signals. During such instances, match officials need to look out
for several things: (a) Offside: (b) Encroachment: (c) Whether a goal
has been scored or not: (d) Fouls.
The Referee will need to decide which of these things is the most
important, and place himself and his Assistant Referee in the best
strategic position to monitor proceedings.
Question 7: Can an Assistant
Referee indicate advantage or 'play-on'?
Answer 7: No. The Referee is the only match official who can indicate
advantage. Assistant Referees should not indicate advantage. I have also
seen Assistant Referees indicate 'play-on' by putting out their arm,
following a supposed off-side that had not been given by that Assistant
Referee. DO NOT SIGNAL. The Referee is the only one who can indicate
'play-on'. Imagine a situation following a foul, where the Assistant
Referee uses an arm signal to indicate 'play-on 'and then a goal is
scored which is subsequently disallowed because the Referee calls play
back for the original foul and awards a free kick instead.
Phew!!! AS AN ASSISTANT REFEREE -DON’T INDICATE ADVANTAGE -PLEASE!
Question 8: I seem to recall
that it is the Home team who is responsible for providing the Assistant
Referees or Club Assistants' flags?
Answer 8: There was mention of
this in the Laws some years ago, but it is not stipulated now. However,
few (if any) football clubs actually have their own flags, and when they
do, they are virtually unusable. Referees now accept this
Question 9: What levels of
PAID Referees are there in the United States?
Question 10: Where in the
Laws does it say an Assistant Referees' flags must be a bright vivid
Answer 10: Advice on types of
flags was mentioned in the Laws until the 1997-1998 Season, when the
complete rewrite of the Laws took this information out, along with a
number of other useful snippets of information.
Prior to 1996-1997 Law 6 'The Assistant Referee', was known as a
'Linesman', and the following is an extract from the old 1996-1997 Law 6
"In International Matches, Assistant Referees'
There is no standard color, so long as they are vivid colors. Luminous
bright yellow and orange, or bright yellow and red seem to be the favorite choice and are easy to
Flags shall be of a vivid color - bright reds and yellows.
Such flags are recommended for all other matches.
Question 11: I am a Level 7
Referee in England, and am writing to ask your advice on 'running the
line'. If when running the line, a ball crosses the goal line (for a
goal) but the ball bounces out, how does the Assistant Referee flag for
a goal, if the Referee is not placed to see that a goal has been scored?
Does the Assistant Referee just raise his flag, or run back to the
position he would take for a center kick?
Answer 11: Normally, the
Referee will (or should) give you specific instructions to cover this
during the pre-match brief to his Assistant Referees. But invariably,
this is not always included. If you watch the top class Referees on TV,
you will see the Assistant Referee run back towards the halfway line
when a goal has been scored. This is the normal method, and usually
suffices. To confirm a valid goal has been scored, an Assistant Referee
should display clear movement down the touchline towards the centerline.
In borderline cases, this movement should be a clear (sprint) to be
recognized by the Referee. To confirm a goal, the Assistant Referee
should not raise his flag. If in his opinion a goal has not been scored
correctly, the Assistant Referee should stand still, retaining any
signal already given. The Referee may then choose to consult further if
he needs additional guidance.
(From the webmaster): Last season, whilst I was running a line, the ball
was fired towards the goal, it hit the crossbar, ricocheted down,
bounced just behind the goal line between the goal posts, and spun back
into play. In other words, a goal was scored. I recognized that a goal
was scored, and immediately started running back up the touchline
towards the halfway line as I usually do. As I was running, I noticed
that the confused Referee was looking towards me, and the players were
still playing on. In other words the Referee had not blown for the goal.
I tried putting my thumb up as a signal to show that a goal had been
scored, but this only served to make the situation even more confused.
So as you can see, this happens to us all!
When a goal has been scored, but the players and the Referee continue on
with play, the best thing that the Assistant Referee can do, should be a
clear (sprint) to be recognized by the Referee. If the Referee fails to
recognize this, use the standard signal for gaining the Referees
attention - by raising the flag and waving it vigorously in the air -
and when the Referee's attention has been gained, point to the
center-mark - this should give the appropriate message to the Referee.
If the Referee is still unsure he will (or should) stop play and come
over to speak to you. You can then explain to him, that a goal has been
scored. If it is an obvious goal, then sprinting towards the halfway
line should suffice - but you will need to keep looking at the Referee
to see that he has recognized the goal (eye contact is important in
these types of situations.)
When the Referee gives his pre-match brief, if you have any areas that
you are unsure of, ask him, and he will discuss with you, what he wants
you to do. This seems like a good point for anyone to 'bring up' next
time they run the line.
Many thanks to Kevin Boyle for the interesting question above!